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Has Technology Infused into the Classroom Helped or Hindered Student Learning?

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A 2019 Typical Classroom: Creative Commons 2019

Walk into any classroom today and remove the technology from the classroom and you will find that the layout hasn’t changed much in the past 200 years. Classrooms may have more comfortable student desks and some classrooms have even replaced desks for tables.   Dusty chalkboards have been replaced with whiteboards and even Smart Boards that have Internet connections. Overhead light projectors have been replaced with digital overheads and projectors. Projectors and filmstrips have been replaced with online Internet images and video streaming.  Teachers use their smartphones or tablets to deliver their notes, and student textbooks are now available on iPads, tablets, and even Smartphones via WIFI connections available in the classroom.

School bells still ring or even play music to indicate that a new class period is beginning or has just ended.  Students still have assigned seats. It is the teacher that still delivers the questions with the responsibility of the student to respond with the correct answer.  There is more testing than in the past though, students get pre-tested on subject matters, then they are given quizzes and tests to see how well they have memorized their assignments.  Post-assessments indicate what material was covered and the percentage of students that got it right! School districts, States, and the Federal government all have their tests and assessments, and you would think, with the infusion of all this technology student learning is at an all-time high, but it isn’t.  In fact in general, student polls indicate students are both bored and confused.  Bored with the instructional presentations and confused as to how the system operates and who really operates it.

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Artwork by Villemard (1910) Public Domain

In 1910 electrical inventions were all the rage.  In this same time period, a French artist by the name of Villemard envisioned the learning classroom in the year 2000.  The picture above shows a teacher putting textbooks into an electronic machine while a student cranks the books through the machine.  The machine is electrical sending via copper wires the book’s knowledge to awaiting students in their seats. Note that the students have no need for paper or any kind of writing instrument since the knowledge is going straight into their brains.  Instant learning? Or is it? A machine can possess knowledge but that doesn’t make it intelligent, and humans are not machines. In order to develop critical thinking skills, which only a human can do, the student must build on the information gained and hands-on experience in order to make the connection in either solving a problem or developing a new solution that addresses the problem.

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21st Century classroom envisioned in 1957.  Public Domain

In 1957 the Russians launched Sputnik, the first orbiting satellite.  In the same year, the United States government enacted the National Defense Education Act.  The purpose of the legislation was to transform schools and encourage high school graduation and college entrance. The comparison of what Russian students were accomplishing compared to their American counterparts made the United States rethink the importance of education as a defense towards future Communistic control. The picture above shows how futurists then viewed the year 2000.  Students would still be in a stereotype classroom setting, now with electronic equipment on their desks with screens and buttons used to input data. Note that the teacher still is dressed in 1950 attire but no longer in the classroom. Television was developing technology in the 1950s and most futurists in this time period saw this form of media as a possible educational platform in the future.  Again, it was thought that technology would solve the goals set by the government. Interesting enough, it was Giambattiar Vico, back in the 17th Century, who realized the problem when the public accepts science and technology as the messiah of education and believing it alone will create the results expected, and then it doesn’t.

It was Isaac Asimov, a science fiction writer, who in 1947 coined the word robot from the Russian word Robota meaning serf or slave labor.  The word caught on in the ’50s and was quite popular by the 1960s.

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21st Century classroom envisioned (1965) Public Domain

 

The 1965 comic strip above shows a group of 21st Century students learning math from a robot.  Even though you can’t see the seats the students are sitting on you can pretty much envision the classroom layout.  The bookcase in the background holds reel-to-reel tapes, which was pretty much 1960 technology.

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Modern 21st Century classroom Creative Commons

Today’s classrooms can be more colorful.  Modern classrooms are carpeted with temperature controls to keep a comfortable working environment.  When technology, in the form of computers, was introduced back in the 1980’s students were curious about what technology was all about; however, today a computer or iPad in the classroom brings no more interest than a light switch on the wall.  Teachers are in the classroom but are sometimes replaced by a video presentation or a computer program that students access either through a desktop computer or laptop. YouTube is probably one of today’s students’ favorite platforms to get tutored.  Students are encouraged to work independently to match their processing speeds and learning styles. Electronic tests and quizzes are given but students can retake them until they pass at the mark they desire. But in reflection, is this any different than the 1910 picture of students being fed knowledge and data? What is missing in ensuring students are learning? If technology can’t create curiosity and learning then what can?

So that this blog article doesn’t become a novel let’s cut to the chase.  21st Century technology has succeeded in storing and delivering knowledge at incredible speeds.  There are many tools that can be used today to call up, present, and package knowledge.  But now we come to the question of this article, has technology helped or hindered active learning?

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Student collaboration (adobe licensed)

I propose technology has hindered active learning.   In the K-8th grade levels, students best learn through metaphors, analogies, and storytelling.  Teaching like this helps grow student imagination and understanding.  Students need to learn about identifying patterns and making connections to other similar patterns.

 

Students need to learn collaboration skills when doing problem-solving.  It is amazing how simple tools like pencils, crayons, and paper can help students transfer imagination into reality.  Students need to learn early on how to adapt and become flexible when working in small groups.  These soft skills when developed early help students succeed in more complex projects later along their path of learning.  Students need to understand how to ask a question especially when they are searching the Net using a search engine.  Young students must learn early that technology is a tool and how to choose the right technology (tool) in developing a new solution.

It is the teacher’s job to make sure the students are clear on concept definition and applications.  Teachers can act as guides or mentors helping students to stay on track and monitor their progress.  Finally, students must learn the value of seven key soft skills:

  • communication (verbal and written),
  • adaptability (bringing in new people, working with limited resources),
  • flexibility (the ability to change direction),
  • project management, problem-solving, thinking outside the box, and storytelling (being able to deliver difficult concepts into a story format).

In my next article, I will go over the changes that need to be made with K-12, the three major paths students should have access to, and the assessments that will help guide students’ strengths and talents towards careers in fields that will increase their productivity, inventiveness, and success.   The Academy of Leonardo’s Apprentice is developing a working model of a 21st Century educational program that will launch this summer. The focus will be on students demonstrating an interest in the fields of engineering and science. For students who can’t afford the summer tuition, we will be setting up a fund for donations to bring in such students.  

Peter Romero, M.Ed.  Academy of LeonardosApprentice.org.  ALA is a 501(c) educational foundation dedicated to improving student education and teacher development.  All donations are tax-deductible under the 501(c) status.

Response To 10 Reasons Tech Is Important

Today, I read an article called, “10 Reasons Today’s Students NEED Technology in the Classroom.”   The author Danny Mareco, is not an educator but is one of the many technology  business owners who in the past 20 years has profited by convincing schools they need technology to become better educators.  As an educator I have always found it interesting that non-educators always seem to know more about how to fix the educational system then the professional educator.  In truth, today’s system is failing because technology has become a learning outcome.  Technology is no more than a tool.  I hope Mr. Mareco reads my responses and debates my answers.

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  1. If used correctly, mobile devices and the applications they support, will help prepare students for their future careers.

RESPONSE:  More important is teaching students how to solve problems when technology is not available.

       2. Integrating technology into the classroom is an effective way to connect with students of all learning styles.

RESPONSE:  Not true.  Most software applications are no more than electronic worksheets, and they do not connect to the seven learning styles.

      3. It gives students the opportunity to enhance the interaction with their classmates and instructors by encouraging collaboration.

RESPONSE:  One of the major complaints from STEM industries is that young workers don’t communicate or collaborate because technology forces individualism.  Watch a real computer lab.  Students are not interacting with one another or allowed to.

4.  Using technology in the classroom gives teachers and other faculty members the opportunity to develop their student’s digital citizenship skills. It’s one thing to use mobile devices, it’s a completely other thing to know how to use them correctly and responsibly.

RESPONSE:  Digital citizenship skills are simply common respect, courtesy, and good manners.  These skills always need to be practiced in the classroom not just when using technical devices.

 5.  Integrating technology in education helps students stay engaged. Most students today have been using mobile devices like tablets and smartphones to play and learn since they could crawl. So it only seems logical to align today’s classrooms with the way that your students want and are used to learning.

RESPONSE:  The fact that television has been around a long time, doesn’t mean that this is necessarily the best medium to engage learners.  Television, like many of today’s modern technologies are passive, one directional, with no responses available; and, for those devices that have pre-programmed responses they disable the key ability in asking questions.  Show me a device that will take a question and expound deeply on it!

6.  Combining new tech like VR (virtual reality) with traditional classroom instruction is one example of how the introduction of new technology can enhance the learning experience and create new opportunities.

RESPONSE:  Enhance learning…yes.  However, no one really explains exactly what “new opportunities” are.  It just sounds good.  Do non-educators really understand the learning process?   They do understand the process of making a buck.

 7. When mobile technology is readily available and performing correctly in the classroom, students are able to access the most up-to-date information quicker and easier than ever before.

RESPONSE:  The Internet can be a portal to instant information.  However, more important than the information are the sources.  Who wrote the information?   How was the information formed and developed?  Is the information the most current?  We need to teach students how to research their information and confirm the sources.

 8. The traditional passive learning model is broken. With technology in the classroom the teacher becomes the encourager, adviser, and coach.

RESPONSE:  Why is it assumed that all traditional learning is passive.  If any, it was interactive.   Passive learning is either reading or watching a video.  Active learning is where the students ask the questions, research the answers, and make the connections to problems their research can solve.

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 9.  Technology helps students be more responsible. Owning your own device or borrowing the school’s devices gives students the opportunity to improve their decision making skills as well as taking ownership of a valuable (and often times expensive) device. Again, this needs to be complemented by proper digital citizenship training to see the best results.

RESPONSE: So, owning a digital device will improve decision making skills?  Showing respect goes back to question 4.

10. Technology transforms the learning experience. Students have access to an incredible amount of new opportunities. From learning, how to code to learning how to better collaborate across teams and with their instructors–technology empowers students to be more creative and be more connected. New tech has super-charged how we learn today.

RESPONSE:  Since 1996, the Federal and State governments have invested over $60 billion dollars into Internet and digital infrastructures.  In those past 20+ years, the ROI on this return has been reported, by PISA, that the United States is still maintaining an average to below average in reading, mathematics, and science.  You would think we would be number one in the world.  On the other hand, we are rated average and below average compared to 72 nations tested.  The only super-charge, gain, or empowerment has come from industries selling their technology hardware, software, and projects to schools each year.  They are the winners, as their profits increase, while our students continue to lose ground for a better future.